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adolfodarriba@
observatoriolascasqueras.es




Castellano Ingles
Detection of the time delays in AGNs through radioactive decay

In this study, I focused mainly on the radioactive decay of cadmium 109, which occurs at 463 days. My objective is to detect if a time delay occurs in the different AGNs. The following light curves of the AAVSO correspond to 1,000 days of observation. Below, I expose the list of all radioactive elements within this period.

Although I show the three types of explosions, as I have defined it in my previous article (it is the first link of this Web), Type III Explosions are the most energetic. Therefore, they are the ones that best adjust to secondary explosions with the disintegration of radioactive elements, measured in their half-life. As their behavior are the least random, it is easier to find a pattern of behavior among them all.

As seen in the following light curves of the AAVSO, in most of them there is a time delay in the AGNs studied. The maximum brightness in the optician is the point that I consider as the Main Explosion, marked as 0 days. It is also observed that the maximum brightness in Gamma rays usually occurs about 3 days before.

The time delay in all subclasses of AGNs (Blazars, Quasars, Seyfert 2 galaxies, etc.) is the same. The only thing that is appreciable in its curves of light, is its lower light amplitude. Secondary explosions are directly related to the radioactive decay of the different elements.

What is more difficult for me is to detect the exact moment of the main explosion and secondary explosions. As I gather more light curves, I will attach it and reduce the errors. That is, I want to further define the light curve and its time delay.

That is why, if the maximum brightness in the optical occurs a few days after the radioactive decay of Cadmium 109, which occurs at 463 days, then a time delay in the AGN is deduced. Actually, this is my main objective of this study. If so, all maximums (red lines) and minimums (blue lines) will be displaced to the right in their proportion (blue and yellow discontinuous lines).

In the graph below, a light curve of an Explosion of Type III is theoretically represented, with a maximum brightness very marked in the 85 days, as bright as the main explosion. If the AGN were really a Type I Explosion, secondary explosions would not be detected in most cases. If it were an Explosion of Type II, the maximums in the secondary explosions would be more representative, but it would not have a maximum in the 85 days.

The blue crosses correspond to my observations.




    • Basic concepts
    - The Blazares are still predictable. Light curves 1,000 days.

    - There are three types of main explosions. Type I, Type II and Type III.

    - At the time of a principal explosion, a cascade of stable elements is produced as radioactive.

    - The radioactive decays of the different elements cause secondary explosions.

    - Depending on the sharpness of the secondary explosions, the width of the jet can be known.

    - As the radioactive elements behave like well-defined atomic clocks measured in their half-life, when there is a delay in the secondary explosions, it is a clear indication of their time delay. That is, each Blazar has its own time delay.

    • Mathematic expression
    Each Blazar has its own time delay, so I apply a constant (D).
    In my theoretical model above, the constant could be: D = 0.011
    That is, when the maximum brightness occurs at 463 days (T), its time delay corresponds (Td):

    Td = T x D // Td = 463 x 0.011 // Td = 5 Days
    (The maximum would occur 5 days later)

    and when it reaches 735 days (T), it corresponds to:

    Td = T x D // Td = 735 x 0.011 // Td = 8 Days
    (The maximum would occur 8 days later)

    As can be seen, the time delay (Td) is proportional to the elapsed time (T).







  • Temporary Delay. Cadmium 109


    Outburst Type I
    Blazar
    BL LAC
    (22 02 43.29139 +42 16 39.9803) z=0.069







    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 12 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type I, the great majority of the secondary explosions produced by the different radioactive elements are not observed or are not significant. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. Mainly, only their brightness minima are defined.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 16 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.

    With respect to the second light curve, I have found another main explosion of Type I, It is noted that between 60 and 103 days there is no secondary explosion, confirming that they have been Type I. The absence of monitoring in this section of the curve, other secondary explosions are not appreciated. The difference between the two main explosions has been 4,025 days (11 years). In the AAVSO database, I can not conclude that there is a previous repetition due to lack of observations. If it were repeated in the future, the next major explosion would occur around July 25, 2023.





    Outburst Type I
    Seyfert 1 Galaxy
    3C 390.3
    (18 42 08.9899 +79 46 17.128) z=0.056159







    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase is not very defined in this type of explosion.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type I, the great majority of the secondary explosions produced by the different radioactive elements are not observed or are not significant. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. Mainly, only their brightness minima are defined.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (dashed blue line), as it is very clearly observed. The minimum is also very clearly observed at 260 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days). As this object does not have a time delay, the maximum brightness occurred exactly at 735 days.





    Outburst Type II
    Blazar
    S5 2007+77
    (20 05 31.004 +77 52 43.27) z=0.342
    The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 8635 Burst Gamma ray. 4 Feb 2016






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 3 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type II, an explosion occurs at 52 days, 75 days and 90 days. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. There is not a big explosion at 85 days.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 6 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.

    With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the Blazars), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place.





    Explosión Tipo II
    Seyfert 1 Galaxy
    1RXS J190910.3+665222
    (19 09 10.8964 +66 52 21.373) z=0.191





    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 15 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type II, an explosion occurs at 52 days, 75 days and 90 days. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. There is not a big explosion at 85 days.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, the maximum brightness will be produced 22 days later.





    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    S5 1803+78
    (18 00 45.684 +78 28 04.02) z=0.680
    The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 7933 Burst Gamma ray. 20 Aug 2015






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 6 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 2 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.

    With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 4 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the Blazars), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place. Even observing the two light curves in gamma rays it is observed that there are two explosions separated by 471 days, produced by the explosion of cadmium 109, confirming a time delay very similar to that in the optic.





    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    S4 0954+65
    (09 58 47.24510 +65 33 54.8181) z=0.367






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs exactly on that day (pink line superimposed on red line), so there is no time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    Even with observations remaining around 85 days after the main explosion, everything seems to indicate that it was an Explosion of Type III. The minimum is observed very clearly at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The minimum absolute brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion, which in this light curve is not appreciated, but the other important minima at 260 days, at 317 days and at 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it was expected to reach the maximum brightness on December 15, 2017, as it has exactly happened.





    Outburst Type III
    Seyfert 1 Galaxy
    S4 1030+61
    (10 33 51.42726 +60 51 07.3301) z=1.40095




    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 17 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    Even with observations remaining around 85 days after the main explosion, everything seems to indicate that it was an Explosion of Type III. The minimum is observed very clearly at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line). Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days. The few observations in those days and their high randomness prevents having defined it well.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on July 22, 2018 (discontinuous yellow line).

    With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the Blazars), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place. Even observing the two light curves in gamma rays it is observed that there are two explosions separated by 474 days, produced by the explosion of cadmium 109, confirming a time delay very similar to that in the optic.





    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    OT 081
    (17 51 32.81855 +09 39 00.7288) z=0.322




    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 44 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar .

    The explosion of Iodine 131 is observed, which occurs 8 days after the main explosion and the explosion of Californio 253, which occurs 18 days after the main explosion. These are a clear indication that a major explosion has occurred.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line). Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 70 days later (dashed yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion.





    Outburst Type I
    Quasar
    3C 454.3
    (22 53 57.74798 +16 08 53.5611) z=0.859001




    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 68 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type I, the great majority of the secondary explosions produced by the different radioactive elements are not observed or are not significant. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. Mainly, only their brightness minima are defined.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line).

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 107 days later (dashed yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion.






    Explosión Tipo III
    Blazar
    PKS 0716+71
    (07 21 53.44846 +71 20 36.3634) z=0.300






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 76 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical, although this stretch of the curve is not defined. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 and 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (dashed blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 121 days later (dashed yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion.





    Outburst Type I
    QUASAR
    S5 1044+71
    (10 48 27.6 +71 43 36) z=1.1500





    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 9 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, probably, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical, although this stretch of the curve is not defined. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions, although at 103 it is not defined.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (dashed blue line), although it is not appreciated by absence of observation. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.





    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    OJ 287
    (08 54 48.87493 +20 06 30.6410) z=0.306
    The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 9489 Burst Gamma ray. 13 Sep 2016




    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope


    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 16 days later (pink line), so there is a large time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    The radioactive decay of Rhodium 102, which occurs after 207 days, shows an appreciable time delay, thanks to the great detail of the light curve.

    I predicted that the explosion of Cadmium 109 would occur around January 25, 2018 with an error of about 5 days, depending exactly on its time delay. In the end, it happened exactly as I mentioned.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions. You can even see the explosion of Selenium 75 at 120 days.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on November 8, 2018 (discontinuous yellow line).

    With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the Blazars), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place.





    Explosión Tipo III
    Blazar
    S2 0109+224
    (01 12 05.82470 +22 44 38.7868) z=0.265





    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness will occur about 20 days later (pink line). This will depend on the time delay that Blazar has, which I do not know. I estimate that it will occur around February 2, 2019, with an error of one week.

    The explosion of Iodine 131 is observed, which occurs 8 days after the main explosion. This is a clear indication that a major explosion has occurred.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The absolute minimum brightness will occur at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), which will occur on November 13, 2018.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements will be created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on November 9, 2019 (discontinuous yellow line).





    Explosión Tipo III
    Blazar
    1ES 1011+496
    (10 15 04.13980 +49 26 00.7047) z=0.200





    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness will occur about 18 days later (pink line). This will depend on the time delay that Blazar has, which I do not know. I estimate that it will occur around August 17, 2018, with an error of one week.

    The explosion of Iodine 131 is observed, which occurs 8 days after the main explosion. This is a clear indication that a major explosion has occurred.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

    The absolute minimum brightness will occur at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), which will occur on May 28, 2018.

    Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days. We have to take into account the large time delay, so that the minimums are observed displaced very far to the right.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements will be created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on May 24, 2019 (discontinuous yellow line).





    Explosión Tipo I
    Quasar
    3C 279
    (12 56 11.16657 -05 47 21.5247) z=0.53620




    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness will occur about 7 days later (pink line). This will depend on the time delay that Blazar has, which I do not know. I estimate that it will occur around June 28, 2018, with an error of three days.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type I, the great majority of the secondary explosions produced by the different radioactive elements are not observed or are not significant. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. Mainly, only their brightness minima are defined.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it was very clearly observed around April 10, 2018.

    With respect to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 1 day later than the maximum brightness in the main explosion, in the optical. There has also been a Gamma explosion 302 days later. I estimate that the next explosion will occur two days after the Cadmium 109 explosion plus its temporary delay, that is, around June 30, 2018.

    With respect to the second light curve, I have found another main explosion of Type I, It is noted that between 60 and 103 days there is no secondary explosion, confirming that they have been Type I. The absence of monitoring in this section of the curve, other secondary explosions are not appreciated. The difference between the two main explosions was 3,718 days (10 years). In the AAVSO database, I can not conclude that there is a previous repetition due to lack of observations. If it were repeated in the future, the next major explosion would occur around May 26, 2027.





    Explosión Tipo II
    Blazar
    1ES 1959+65
    (19 59 59.8521 +65 08 54.653) z=0.047





    The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 14 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

    As it has been an Explosion of Type II, an explosion occurs at 52 days, 75 days and 90 days. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. There is not a big explosion at 85 days.

    The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

    The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 26 days later (dashed yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion.





    Explosión Tipo ???
    Quasar
    4C 28.07
    (02 37 52.40561 +28 48 08.9918) z=1.206





    Quasar in study.





    • Conclusions
    • - The Blazars have a temporary delay. This indicates that the observed light is very close to the event horizon of the black hole.

      - They have a recognizable pattern. They are predictable.

      - Secondary explosions correspond to radioactive decays and are in direct proportion to the intensity emitted. By comparing the intensity of these secondary explosions, we can know their amount of heavy elements.

      - All AGNs have their maximum and minimum periods, equal. This confirms that all AGNs are the same objects, viewed from different perspectives.

      - Although the maximum brightness at different wavelengths is related, there is a time delay of a few days with respect to other types of wavelengths detected, so that light emission does not occur exactly in the same place. Even in the main explosion, the maximum brightness in Gamma rays usually happens about 3 days earlier than in the optic.

      - The higher the frequency detected, for example, in Gamma rays with respect to optics, the faster its brightness can change. This indicates that the gamma-ray emitting region is much smaller than in the optical region.

      - By comparing the degree of time delay with other astrophysical magnitudes, we could discover related concepts.

      - Depending on the Blazar, the main explosion as secondary explosions may be more acute or flattened, in the curves of light. We could know why the cone of the emitting Jet is narrower than others.



      Types of radioactive disintegration
      Type III
      Outbursts secondary
      (Around 8 days)
      Iodine 131 to Xenon 131 --> Half life 8,02 days
      Selenium 72 to Astatine 72 --> Half life 8,40 days
      Thulium 167 to Erbium 167 --> Half life 9,25 days
      Erbium 169 to Thulium 169 --> Half life 9,40 days
      Actinium 225 to Fran­cium 221 --> Half life 10,00 days
      Iridium 193 to Iridium 193 --> Half life 10,5 days
      Barium 140 to Lanthanum 140 --> Half life 12,8 days

      (Around 18 days)
      Provoked as in the SN IIb
      Protactinium 230 to Thorium 230 --> Half life 17,40 days
      Arsenic 74 to Germanium 74 --> Half life 17,78 days
      Californium 253 to Einsteinium 253 --> Half life 17,81 days
      Californium 253 to Curium 249 --> Half life 17,81 days

      (Around 20 days)
      Einsteinium 253 to Berkelium 249 --> Half life 20,47 days

      (Around 30 days)
      Chromium 51 to Vanadium 51 --> Half life 27,70 days
      Protactinium 233 to Uranium 233 --> Half life 29,97 days
      Osmium 193 to Iridium 193 --> Half life 30,11 days
      Mendelevium 260 to Fermium 260 --> Half life 31,80 days
      Ytterbium 169 to Thulium 169 --> Half life 32,026 days
      Cerium 141 to Praseodymium 141 --> Half life 32,501 days
      Argon 37 to Chlorine 37 --> Half life 35,04 days

      (Around 50 days)
      Strontium 89 --> Half life 51,50 days
      Mendelevium 258 to Fermium 258 --> Half life 51,50 days
      Beryllium 7 to Lithium 7 --> Half life 53,12 days

      (Around 64 days)
      Zirconium 95 --> Half life 64,02 days

      (Around 85 days)
      Nickel 56 to Iron 56 --> 83,35 days
      (Nickel 56 to Cobalt 56 --> Vida media 6,08 days) +
      (Cobalt 56 to Iron 56 --> Half life 77,27 days) = 83,35 days
      Arsenic 73 to Germanium 73 --> Half life 80,30 days
      Zirconium 88 to Yttrium 88 --> Half life 83,40 days
      Scandium 46 to Titanium 46 --> Half life 83,79 days

      (Around 87 days)
      Sulfur 35 to Chlorine 35 --> Half life 87,32 days

      (Around 93 days)
      Thulium 168 to Erbium 168 --> Half life 93,10 days
      Osmium 185 to Rhenium 185 --> Half life 93,60 days

      (Around 120 days)
      Selenium 75 to Astatine 75 --> Half life 119,779 days
      Tungsten 181 to Tantalum 181 --> Half life 121,2 days

      (Around 128 days)
      Thulium 170 to Ytterbium 170 --> Half life 128,6 days

      (Around 138 days)
      Polonium 210 to Lead 206 --> Half life 138,376 days

      (Around 207 days)
      Rhodium 102 to Ruthenium 102 --> Half life 207,0 days

      (Around 272 days)
      Cobalt 57 to Iron 57 --> Half life 271,79 days

      (Around 285 days)
      Cerium 144 to Praseodymium 144 --> Half life 284,893 days

      (Around 374 days)
      Ruthenium 106 to Rhodium 106 --> Half life 373,59 days

      (Around 463 days)
      Cadmium 109 to Silver 109 --> Half life 462,6 days

      (Around 754 days)
      Caesium 134 to Xenon 134 --> Half life 754,17 days
      Caesium 134 to Barium 134 --> Half life 754,17 days

      (Around 950 days)
      Sodium 22 al Neon 22 --> Half life 950,38 days

      (Around 966 days)
      Californium 252 al Curium 248 --> Half life 966,09 days




      Minimum in the light curves
      1º Minimum --> 60 days (First minimum important)

      2º Minimum --> 103 days (End of Plateau phase)

      3º Minimum --> 260 days (Minimum deep)

      4º Minimum --> 317 days (Minimum deep)

      5º Minimum --> 385 days (Corresponds to the absolute minimum)

      6º Minimum --> 533 days (Minimum deep)

      7º Minimum --> 1030 days (Corresponds to the absolute minimum)






      • Gratefulness

    • I thank the AAVSO for permission to publish their light curves and the M1 Group for their important contribution. Also to all observers who have made these observations, without them, this work would not have been possible. To all of them, thank you very much.

      Also the NASA Fermi Group to authorize publish their light curves in gamma rays for a greater understanding of these objects.




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