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adolfodarriba@
observatoriolascasqueras.es




Castellano Ingles
Detection of the time delays in AGNs through radioactive decay

In this study, I focused mainly on the radioactive decay of cadmium 109, which occurs at 463 days. My objective is to detect if a time delay occurs in the different AGNs. The following light curves of the AAVSO correspond to 1,000 days of observation. Below, I expose the list of all radioactive elements within this period.

Although I show the three types of explosions, as I have defined it in my previous article (it is the first link of this Web), Type III Explosions are the most energetic. Therefore, they are the ones that best adjust to secondary explosions with the disintegration of radioactive elements, measured in their half-life. As their behavior are the least random, it is easier to find a pattern of behavior among them all.

As seen in the following light curves of the AAVSO, in most of them there is a time delay in the AGNs studied. The maximum brightness in the optician is the point that I consider as the Main Explosion, marked as 0 days. It is also observed that the maximum brightness in Gamma rays usually occurs about 3 days before.

The time delay in all subclasses of AGNs (Blazares, Quasars, Seyfert 2 galaxies, etc.) is the same. The only thing that is appreciable in its curves of light, is its lower light amplitude. Secondary explosions are directly related to the radioactive decay of the different elements.

What is more difficult for me is to detect the exact moment of the main explosion and secondary explosions. As I gather more light curves, I will attach it and reduce the errors. That is, I want to further define the light curve and its time delay.

That is why, if the maximum brightness in the optical occurs a few days after the radioactive decay of Cadmium 109, which occurs at 463 days, then a time delay in the AGN is deduced. Actually, this is my main objective of this study. If so, all maximums (red lines) and minimums (blue lines) will be displaced to the right in their proportion (blue and yellow discontinuous lines).

In the graph below, a light curve of an Explosion of Type III is theoretically represented, with a maximum brightness very marked in the 85 days, as bright as the main explosion. If the AGN were really a Type I Explosion, secondary explosions would not be detected in most cases. If it were an Explosion of Type II, the maximums in the secondary explosions would be more representative, but it would not have a maximum in the 85 days.

The blue crosses correspond to my observations.










Temporary Delay. Cadmium 109


Outburst Type I
BLAZAR
BL LAC
(22 02 43.29139 +42 16 39.9803) z=0.069





The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 12 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

As it has been an Explosion of Type I, the great majority of the secondary explosions produced by the different radioactive elements are not observed or are not significant. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. Mainly, only their brightness minima are defined.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 16 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.





Outburst Type II
BLAZAR
S5 2007+77
(20 05 31.004 +77 52 43.27) z=0.342
The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 8635 Burst Gamma ray. 4 Feb 2016





The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 4 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

As it has been an Explosion of Type II, an explosion occurs at 53 days, 72 days and 90 days. This is a characteristic of this type of explosions. There is not a big explosion at 85 days.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 6 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.

With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the blazares), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place.





Outburst Type III
BLAZAR
S5 1803+78
(18 00 45.684 +78 28 04.02) z=0.680
The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 7933 Burst Gamma ray. 20 Aug 2015




Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 7 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 2 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.

With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the blazares), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place. Even observing the two light curves in gamma rays it is observed that there are two explosions separated by 471 days, produced by the explosion of cadmium 109, confirming a time delay very similar to that in the optic.





Outburst Type III
BLAZAR
S4 0954+65
(09 58 47.24510 +65 33 54.8181) z=0.367





The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs exactly on that day (pink line superimposed on red line), so there is no time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

Even with observations remaining around 85 days after the main explosion, everything seems to indicate that it was an Explosion of Type III. The minimum is observed very clearly at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

The minimum absolute brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion, which in this light curve is not appreciated, but the other important minima at 260 days, at 317 days and at 533 days.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on December 15, 2017.





Outburst Type III
SEYFERT 1 GALAXY
S4 1030+61
(10 33 51.42726 +60 51 07.3301) z=1.40095




Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope



The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 18 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

Even with observations remaining around 85 days after the main explosion, everything seems to indicate that it was an Explosion of Type III. The minimum is observed very clearly at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line). Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days. The few observations in those days and their high randomness prevents having defined it well.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on July 22, 2018 (discontinuous yellow line).

With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the blazares), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place. Even observing the two light curves in gamma rays it is observed that there are two explosions separated by 474 days, produced by the explosion of cadmium 109, confirming a time delay very similar to that in the optic.





Outburst Type III
BLAZAR
OT 081
(17 51 32.81855 +09 39 00.7288) z=0.322





The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 16 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing mostly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since this light curve is under study, it is expected to reach the maximum brightness on August 10, 2018 (discontinuous yellow line).





Outburst Type III
BLAZAR
1ES 1959+65
(19 59 59.8521 +65 08 54.653) z=0.047





The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 50 days later (pink line), so there is a time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar. In fact, it's the Blazar with the most temporary delay I've found.

As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions. By having so much time delay, the light curve is shifted to the right very considerably. What is not defined is the main explosion, possibly having been hidden by the outer layers of the Blazar, it is very likely that this is the reason why it is not very active in Gamma rays, this blazar being one of the largest known.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed. Other important minimums are 260 days, 317 days and 533 days. We have to take into account the large time delay, so that the minimums are observed displaced very far to the right.





Outburst Type III
BLAZAR
3C 66A
(02 22 39.612 +43 02 07.88) z=0.34





The radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that occurs at 463 days (red line), the maximum increase in brightness occurs 22 days later (pink line), so there is a large time delay in the emission of radiation in the Blazar.

As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical, which in this case is even brighter. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions.

The explosion of Cadmium 109 is of such magnitude that another cascade of stable elements is created as radioactive, producing predominantly radioactive Cobalt 57 that decays in Iron 57 stable at 272 days after this explosion (red line at 735 days, 463+ 272 = 735 days), but since the Blazar has an appreciable time delay, it actually occurs 18 days later (discontinuous yellow line), verifying its time delay in direct proportion. It is even seen that 18 days later (the next discontinuous yellow line) the typical increase in brightness of a major explosion occurs.





Outburst Type ??
QUASAR
S5 1044+71
(10 48 27.6 +71 43 36) z=1.1500





Although I have not been able to detect the initial explosion, if I adjust the light curve coinciding with the maximum luminosity with the explosion of Cadmium 109, the explosion that occurs at 735 days coincides perfectly.

Even the minimum brightness that occurs at 533 days is observed very clearly.





Outburst Type III
BLAZAR
OJ 287
(08 54 48.87493 +20 06 30.6410) z=0.306
The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 9489 Burst Gamma ray. 13 Sep 2016




Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope


The radioactive decay of Rhodium 102, which occurs after 207 days, shows an appreciable time delay, thanks to the great detail of the light curve. We will have to wait for the radioactive decay of Cadmium 109 that will occur around January 25, 2018 with an error of about 5 days. It will depend exactly on your time delay.

As it has been an Explosion of Type III, an explosion occurs at 85 days as intense as in the main explosion, but its brightness increase is gradual and almost symmetrical. This is the main characteristic of Type III explosions. The minimum is also clearly observed at 60 days and at 103 days, unmistakable in this type of explosions. You can even see the explosion of Selenium 75 at 120 days.

The absolute minimum brightness occurs at 385 days after the main explosion plus its delay time (discontinuous blue line), as it is very clearly observed.

With regard to the explosion in Gamma rays occurred 3 days before the maximum brightness of the main explosion in the optical (very common in the blazares), so this difference tells us that these two explosions in different wavelengths are not produced exactly in the same place.






Types of radioactive disintegration
Type III
Outbursts secondary
(Around 8 days)
Iodine 131 to Xenon 131 --> Half life 8,02 days
Selenium 72 to Astatine 72 --> Half life 8,40 days
Thulium 167 to Erbium 167 --> Half life 9,25 days
Erbium 169 to Thulium 169 --> Half life 9,40 days
Actinium 225 to Fran­cium 221 --> Half life 10,00 days
Iridium 193 to Iridium 193 --> Half life 10,5 days
Barium 140 to Lanthanum 140 --> Half life 12,8 days

(Around 18 days)
Provoked as in the SN IIb
Protactinium 230 to Thorium 230 --> Half life 17,40 days
Arsenic 74 to Germanium 74 --> Half life 17,78 days
Californium 253 to Einsteinium 253 --> Half life 17,81 days
Californium 253 to Curium 249 --> Half life 17,81 days

(Around 20 days)
Einsteinium 253 to Berkelium 249 --> Half life 20,47 days

(Around 30 days)
Chromium 51 to Vanadium 51 --> Half life 27,70 days
Protactinium 233 to Uranium 233 --> Half life 29,97 days
Osmium 193 to Iridium 193 --> Half life 30,11 days
Mendelevium 260 to Fermium 260 --> Half life 31,80 days
Ytterbium 169 to Thulium 169 --> Half life 32,026 days
Cerium 141 to Praseodymium 141 --> Half life 32,501 days
Argon 37 to Chlorine 37 --> Half life 35,04 days

(Around 50 days)
Strontium 89 --> Half life 51,50 days
Mendelevium 258 to Fermium 258 --> Half life 51,50 days
Beryllium 7 to Lithium 7 --> Half life 53,12 days

(Around 64 days)
Zirconium 95 --> Half life 64,02 days

(Around 85 days)
Nickel 56 to Iron 56 --> 83,35 days
(Nickel 56 to Cobalt 56 --> Vida media 6,08 days) +
(Cobalt 56 to Iron 56 --> Half life 77,27 days) = 83,35 days
Arsenic 73 to Germanium 73 --> Half life 80,30 days
Zirconium 88 to Yttrium 88 --> Half life 83,40 days
Scandium 46 to Titanium 46 --> Half life 83,79 days

(Around 87 days)
Sulfur 35 to Chlorine 35 --> Half life 87,32 days

(Around 93 days)
Thulium 168 to Erbium 168 --> Half life 93,10 days
Osmium 185 to Rhenium 185 --> Half life 93,60 days

(Around 120 days)
Selenium 75 to Astatine 75 --> Half life 119,779 days
Tungsten 181 to Tantalum 181 --> Half life 121,2 days

(Around 128 days)
Thulium 170 to Ytterbium 170 --> Half life 128,6 days

(Around 138 days)
Polonium 210 to Lead 206 --> Half life 138,376 days

(Around 207 days)
Rhodium 102 to Ruthenium 102 --> Half life 207,0 days

(Around 272 days)
Cobalt 57 to Iron 57 --> Half life 271,79 days

(Around 285 days)
Cerium 144 to Praseodymium 144 --> Half life 284,893 days

(Around 374 days)
Ruthenium 106 to Rhodium 106 --> Half life 373,59 days

(Around 463 days)
Cadmium 109 to Silver 109 --> Half life 462,6 days

(Around 754 days)
Caesium 134 to Xenon 134 --> Half life 754,17 days
Caesium 134 to Barium 134 --> Half life 754,17 days

(Around 958 days)
Promethium 147 to Samarium 147 --> Half life 958,20 days

(Around 966 days)
Californium 252 to Curium 248 --> Half life 966,09 days




Minimum in the light curves
1º Minimum --> 60 days (First minimum important)

2º Minimum --> 103 days (End of Plateau phase)

3º Minimum --> 260 days (Minimum deep)

4º Minimum --> 317 days (Minimum deep)

5º Minimum --> 385 days (Corresponds to the absolute minimum)

6º Minimum --> 533 days (Minimum deep)






    • Gratefulness

  • I thank the AAVSO for permission to publish their light curves and the M1 Group for their important contribution. Also to all observers who have made these observations, without them, this work would not have been possible. To all of them, thank you very much.

    Also the NASA Fermi Group to authorize publish their light curves in gamma rays for a greater understanding of these objects.




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