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adolfodarriba@
observatoriolascasqueras.es




Castellano Ingles
Detection of the time delays in AGNs through radioactive decay

In this study, I focused mainly on the radioactive decay of cadmium 109, which occurs at 463 days. My objective is to detect if a time delay occurs in the different AGNs. The following light curves of the AAVSO correspond to 1,000 days of observation. Below, I expose the list of all radioactive elements within this period.

Although I show the three types of explosions, as I have defined it in my previous article (it is the first link of this Web), Type III Explosions are the most energetic. Therefore, they are the ones that best adjust to secondary explosions with the disintegration of radioactive elements, measured in their half-life. As their behavior are the least random, it is easier to find a pattern of behavior among them all.

As seen in the following light curves of the AAVSO, in most of them there is a time delay in the AGNs studied. The maximum brightness in the optician is the point that I consider as the Main Explosion, marked as 0 days. It is also observed that the maximum brightness in Gamma rays usually occurs about 3 days before.

The time delay in all subclasses of AGNs (Blazars, Quasars, Seyfert 2 galaxies, etc.) is the same. The only thing that is appreciable in its curves of light, is its lower light amplitude. Secondary explosions are directly related to the radioactive decay of the different elements.

What is more difficult for me is to detect the exact moment of the main explosion and secondary explosions. As I gather more light curves, I will attach it and reduce the errors. That is, I want to further define the light curve and its time delay.

That is why, if the maximum brightness in the optical occurs a few days after the radioactive decay of Cadmium 109, which occurs at 463 days, then a time delay in the AGN is deduced. Actually, this is my main objective of this study. If so, all maximums (red lines) and minimums (blue lines) will be displaced to the right in their proportion (blue and yellow discontinuous lines).

In the graph below, a light curve of an Explosion of Type III is theoretically represented, with a maximum brightness very marked in the 85 days, as bright as the main explosion. If the AGN were really a Type I Explosion, secondary explosions would not be detected in most cases. If it were an Explosion of Type II, the maximums in the secondary explosions would be more representative, but it would not have a maximum in the 85 days.

The blue crosses correspond to my observations.






    • Basic concepts
    - The Blazares are still predictable. Light curves 1,000 days.

    - There are three types of main explosions. Type I, Type II and Type III.

    - At the time of a principal explosion, a cascade of stable elements is produced as radioactive.

    - The radioactive decays of the different elements cause secondary explosions.

    - Depending on the sharpness of the secondary explosions, the width of the jet can be known.

    - As the radioactive elements behave like well-defined atomic clocks measured in their half-life,
    when there is a delay in the secondary explosions, it is a clear indication of their time delay.
    That is, each Blazar has its own time delay.


    • Types of main explosions
    - Those of Type I, usually move near their minimum brightness, without large variations occurring
    when they reach their secondary explosions, although sometimes there is some significant increase.
    Its most important feature is that no explosions are detected between 60 and 100 days.
    Its trajectory is usually flat or even descending slightly.

    - Those of type II, have a greater movement within the light curve,
    detecting an increase in brightness at 75 and 90 days later.

    - Those of type III, are the most energetic explosions.
    A secondary explosion is detected at 85 days, almost as bright as the main one.
    They are the most predictable. Its movement within the light curve is similar to those of Type II.

    • Concept in Gamma flashes
    - In Gamma rays, the main explosion usually happens about 3 to 10 days before the optic.

    - In secondary explosions usually occurs with the same time delay as the optical
    or about 8 days later.

    - A separate symmetric Gamma explosion may also occur for one or two weeks.

    - It is possible that the symmetry is produced by the precession of the two emitting Gamma lobes, when rotating.
    Hence, the Gamma flash occurs one week before or after its time delay.

    - In short, the time delay in Gamma rays is equal to or greater than the optical.

    • Mathematic expression
    Each Blazar has its own time delay, so I apply a constant (D).
    In my theoretical model above, the constant could be: D = 0.011
    That is, when the maximum brightness occurs at 463 days (T), its time delay corresponds (Td):

    Td = T x D // Td = 463 x 0.011 // Td = 5 Days
    (The maximum would occur 5 days later)

    and when it reaches 735 days (T), it corresponds to:

    Td = T x D // Td = 735 x 0.011 // Td = 8 Days
    (The maximum would occur 8 days later)

    As can be seen, the time delay (Td) is proportional to the elapsed time (T).







  • Temporary Delay. Cadmium 109


    Outburst Type I
    Blazar
    BL LAC
    (22 02 43.29139 +42 16 39.9803) z=0.069















    Outburst Type I
    Seyfert 1 Galaxy
    3C 390.3
    (18 42 08.9899 +79 46 17.128) z=0.056159













    Outburst Type I
    Quasar
    3C 454.3
    (22 53 57.74798 +16 08 53.5611) z=0.859001








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type I
    Quasar
    3C 279
    (12 56 11.16657 -05 47 21.5247) z=0.53620






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type II
    Blazar
    S5 2007+77
    (20 05 31.004 +77 52 43.27) z=0.342
    The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 8635 Burst Gamma ray. 4 Feb 2016








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type II
    Seyfert 1 Galaxy
    1RXS J190910.3+665222
    (19 09 10.8964 +66 52 21.373) z=0.191













    Outburst Type II
    Blazar
    PKS 0716+71
    (07 21 53.44846 +71 20 36.3634) z=0.300








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type II
    Blazar
    OT 081
    (17 51 32.81855 +09 39 00.7288) z=0.322








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type II
    Quasar
    S5 1044+71
    (10 48 27.6 +71 43 36) z=1.1500






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    S5 1803+78
    (18 00 45.684 +78 28 04.02) z=0.680
    The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 7933 Burst Gamma ray. 20 Aug 2015








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Quasar
    PKS 0736+01
    (07 39 18.03390 +01 37 04.6179) z=0.191






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    S4 0954+65
    (09 58 47.24510 +65 33 54.8181) z=0.367








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Seyfert 1 Galaxy
    S4 1030+61
    (10 33 51.42726 +60 51 07.3301) z=1.40095






    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    OJ 287
    (08 54 48.87493 +20 06 30.6410) z=0.306
    The Astronomer’s Telegram. Nº 9489 Burst Gamma ray. 13 Sep 2016










    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    S2 0109+224
    (01 12 05.82470 +22 44 38.7868) z=0.265











    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    3C 371
    (18 06 50.68065 +69 49 28.1086) z=0.050











    Outburst Type I
    Blazar
    PKS 0048-09
    (00 50 41.31738756 -09 29 05.2102688) z=0.635











    Outburst Type II
    Blazar
    QSO B0506+056
    (05 09 25.9645434784 +05 41 35.333636817) z=0.3365











    Outburst Type I
    Quasar
    S4 1800+44
    (18 01 32.31481 +44 04 21.9004) z=0.663








    Light curve. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope









    Outburst Type III
    Blazar
    1ES 1011+496
    (10 15 04.13980 +49 26 00.7047) z=0.200













    Outburst Type II
    Quasar
    4C 28.07
    (02 37 52.40561 +28 48 08.9918) z=1.206











    Outburst Type II
    Blazar
    1ES 0806+52.4
    (08 09 49.18673 +52 18 58.2507) z=0.13710













    Outburst Type ?
    Blazar
    NSV 19409
    (12 30 14.0894 +25 18 07.136) z=0.135











    Outburst Type ?
    Quasar
    PKS 1510-089
    (15 12 50.53292 -09 05 59.8296) z=0.360











    • Conclusions
    • - The Blazars have a temporary delay. This indicates that the observed light is very close to the event horizon of the black hole.

      - They have a recognizable pattern. They are predictable.

      - Secondary explosions correspond to radioactive decays and are in direct proportion to the intensity emitted. By comparing the intensity of these secondary explosions, we can know their amount of heavy elements.

      - All AGNs have their maximum and minimum periods, equal. This confirms that all AGNs are the same objects, viewed from different perspectives.

      - Although the maximum brightness at different wavelengths is related, there is a time delay of a few days with respect to other types of wavelengths detected, so that light emission does not occur exactly in the same place. Even in the main explosion, the maximum brightness in Gamma rays usually happens about 3 days earlier than in the optic.

      - The higher the frequency detected, for example, in Gamma rays with respect to optics, the faster its brightness can change. This indicates that the gamma-ray emitting region is much smaller than in the optical region.

      - By comparing the degree of time delay with other astrophysical magnitudes, we could discover related concepts.

      - Depending on the Blazar, the main explosion as secondary explosions may be more acute or flattened, in the curves of light. We could know why the cone of the emitting Jet is narrower than others.



      Types of radioactive disintegration
      Type III
      Outbursts secondary
      (Around 8 days)
      Iodine 131 to Xenon 131 --> Half life 8,02 days
      Selenium 72 to Astatine 72 --> Half life 8,40 days
      Thulium 167 to Erbium 167 --> Half life 9,25 days
      Erbium 169 to Thulium 169 --> Half life 9,40 days
      Actinium 225 to Fran­cium 221 --> Half life 10,00 days
      Iridium 193 to Iridium 193 --> Half life 10,5 days
      Barium 140 to Lanthanum 140 --> Half life 12,8 days

      (Around 18 days)
      Provoked as in the SN IIb
      Protactinium 230 to Thorium 230 --> Half life 17,40 days
      Arsenic 74 to Germanium 74 --> Half life 17,78 days
      Californium 253 to Einsteinium 253 --> Half life 17,81 days
      Californium 253 to Curium 249 --> Half life 17,81 days

      (Around 20 days)
      Einsteinium 253 to Berkelium 249 --> Half life 20,47 days

      (Around 30 days)
      Chromium 51 to Vanadium 51 --> Half life 27,70 days
      Protactinium 233 to Uranium 233 --> Half life 29,97 days
      Osmium 193 to Iridium 193 --> Half life 30,11 days
      Mendelevium 260 to Fermium 260 --> Half life 31,80 days
      Ytterbium 169 to Thulium 169 --> Half life 32,026 days
      Cerium 141 to Praseodymium 141 --> Half life 32,501 days
      Argon 37 to Chlorine 37 --> Half life 35,04 days

      (Around 50 days)
      Strontium 89 --> Half life 51,50 days
      Mendelevium 258 to Fermium 258 --> Half life 51,50 days
      Beryllium 7 to Lithium 7 --> Half life 53,12 days

      (Around 64 days)
      Zirconium 95 --> Half life 64,02 days

      (Around 85 days)
      Nickel 56 to Iron 56 --> 83,35 days
      (Nickel 56 to Cobalt 56 --> Vida media 6,08 days) +
      (Cobalt 56 to Iron 56 --> Half life 77,27 days) = 83,35 days
      Arsenic 73 to Germanium 73 --> Half life 80,30 days
      Zirconium 88 to Yttrium 88 --> Half life 83,40 days
      Scandium 46 to Titanium 46 --> Half life 83,79 days

      (Around 87 days)
      Sulfur 35 to Chlorine 35 --> Half life 87,32 days

      (Around 93 days)
      Thulium 168 to Erbium 168 --> Half life 93,10 days
      Osmium 185 to Rhenium 185 --> Half life 93,60 days

      (Around 120 days)
      Selenium 75 to Astatine 75 --> Half life 119,779 days
      Tungsten 181 to Tantalum 181 --> Half life 121,2 days

      (Around 128 days)
      Thulium 170 to Ytterbium 170 --> Half life 128,6 days

      (Around 138 days)
      Polonium 210 to Lead 206 --> Half life 138,376 days

      (Around 207 days)
      Rhodium 102 to Ruthenium 102 --> Half life 207,0 days

      (Around 272 days)
      Cobalt 57 to Iron 57 --> Half life 271,79 days

      (Around 285 days)
      Cerium 144 to Praseodymium 144 --> Half life 284,893 days

      (Around 374 days)
      Ruthenium 106 to Rhodium 106 --> Half life 373,59 days

      (Around 463 days)
      Cadmium 109 to Silver 109 --> Half life 462,6 days

      (Around 754 days)
      Caesium 134 to Xenon 134 --> Half life 754,17 days
      Caesium 134 to Barium 134 --> Half life 754,17 days

      (Around 950 days)
      Sodium 22 to Neon 22 --> Half life 950,38 days

      (Around 966 days)
      Californium 252 to Curium 248 --> Half life 966,09 days

      (Around 1205 days)
      Rhodium 101 to Ruthenium 101 --> Half life 1205,32 days

      (Around 1925 days)
      Cobalt 60 to Nickel 60 --> Half life 1925,38 days

      (Around 2191 days)
      Osmium 194 to Iridium 194 --> Half life 2191,50 days




      Minimum in the light curves
      1º Minimum --> 60 days (First minimum important)

      2º Minimum --> 103 days (End of Plateau phase)

      3º Minimum --> 260 days (Minimum deep)

      4º Minimum --> 317 days (Minimum deep)

      5º Minimum --> 385 days (Corresponds to the absolute minimum)

      6º Minimum --> 533 days (Minimum deep)

      7º Minimum --> 1030 days (Corresponds to the absolute minimum)






      • Gratefulness

    • I thank the AAVSO for permission to publish their light curves and the M1 Group for their important contribution. Also to all observers who have made these observations, without them, this work would not have been possible. To all of them, thank you very much.

      Especially my partner Diego Rodríguez from the M1 Group, and Gianpiero Locatelli, Ramón Naves, David Cejudo and Jordi Berenguer from the Supernova Group, and Dave Hinzel and Heinz-Bernd Eggenstein from the AAVSO.

      Also the NASA Fermi Group to authorize publish their light curves in gamma rays for a greater understanding of these objects.




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